Major political parties in India are at their neck to neck for power. And another chapter for power play is happening right after Bangalore elections. It is now happening in Andhra Pradesh on 13 may 2024. Indian political parties share an energetic fabric that has been created by various ideologies, regional aspirations and historical legacies. Political parties of different beliefs and interests compete for power and influence from the vibrant streets of Delhi to the calm backwaters of Kerala. 

This article examines the diverse range of India’s political parties, looking at their ideologies, importance and impact on different regions in India. Let us explore Indian Politics!!

The Indian Political Parties

The political parties of India feature a lively multi-party system regulated by the Election Commission of India (ECI). However, recognition as a national or state-level political party by EC also has its own set of provisions. 

These include the much sought after reserved party symbol, free airtime on state-run media and say in important electoral decisions. But for those who wish to contest elections without the status, they must register themselves with the Election Commission.

As per ECI data released in March 2024, there are 6 national parties, 57 state parties and a significant number of unrecognised parties competing for political parties. All registered parties that take part in elections have to choose a symbol from the list provided by the EC which ensures fair conduct of polls throughout diverse regions of India.

To gain national party status, a political party needs to demonstrate its considerable presence either by securing not less than two percent of total valid votes polled in Lok Sabha General Elections from at least three states or winning minimum three seats in Lok Sabha at such election. 

National Political Parties in India

According to Indian political system, a registered party earns national party recognition by meeting any of the following conditions:

  • Winning at least 2% of Lok Sabha seats (11 seats) from a minimum of three states.
  • Securing 6% of the vote share in four or more states in a Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly general election, alongside winning four Lok Sabha seats.
  • Attaining state party recognition in four states.

Based on the above criteria, following are the 6 major National Political Parties In India according to the ECI in March of 2024: 

1. Aam Aadmi Party (AAP)

Major Political Parties In India: Party Signs and Importance

  • Political Position: Center to Centre-left
  • Policy: Populism, Secularism, Composite nationalism, Democratic socialism
  • Formed: November 2012
  • Headed by: Arvind Kejriwal
  • Seats held: 2 in Lok Sabha; 1 in Rajya Sabha; strong presence in state assemblies.
  • Logo: Broom
  • Explanation: The broom stands for AAP’s pledge to clean governance which would work for common people and clean Indian politics by eradicating corruption.

2. Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP)

Major Political Parties In India: Party Signs and Importance

  • Ideology: Ambedkarism, Self-Respect
  • Established: April 1984
  • Head: Mayawati
  • Spheres of influence: 8 Lok Sabha Constituencies and state assemblies representation
  • Symbol: Elephant
  • Meaning: It represents power, perseverance, and the party’s dedication to voicing for oppressed groups.

3. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)

  • Political Position: Right
  • Ideology: Hindu nationalism, Free-marketeering, Populism of the Right, Toryism
  • Established: April 1980
  • Chairperson: JP Nadda
  • Colours: The largest party in the Lok Sabha with 290 seats, a significant presence in the Rajya Sabha and numerous state assemblies.
  • Logo: Lotus flower
  • Interpretation: It represents racial purity, wealthiness and cultural tradition of India as well as embodies Hindutva ideology and vision for nation-building.

4. Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M))

Major Political Parties In India: Party Signs and Importance

  • Political Power: Leftist
  • Ideology: Marxism-Leninism, Socialism, Communism, Secularism
  • Established: November 1964
  • Head: Sitaram Yechury
  • Presence: It has a presence in three Lok Sabha seats, five Rajya Sabha seats and state assemblies.
  • Symbol: The symbol of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) is the Hammer and Sickle.
  • Meaning: It represents workers’ struggle for socialism and party’s commitment towards secularism and social justice.

5. Indian National Congress (INC)


  • Political Position: Centre
  • Ideology: Secularism, Civic nationalism, Social democracy, Liberalism
  • Founded: December 1885
  • Leader: Mallikarjun Kharge
  • Presence: 47 Lok Sabha seats, 30 Rajya Sabha seats, and extensive representation in state assemblies.
  • Symbol: A Hand
  • Meaning: It signifies unity, progress, and the party’s historical role in India’s independence movement and nation-building efforts.

6. National People’s Party (NPP)

  • Political Position: Centre-Right
  • Ideology: Regionalism, Cultural conservatism
  • Founded: January 2013
  • Leader: Conrad Sangma
  • Presence: 1 MP seat, 1 MLC seat and presence in state legislatures.
  • Symbol: A Book written in hindi alphabets
  • Meaning : It signifies knowledge, education and the party’s commitment towards regionalism and cultural conservatism for inclusive development.

These political parties represent a diverse range of ideologies and have varying levels of influence and presence across different states and regions of India.

State Political Parties in India

Registered political parties must meet one of the following conditions to be considered as a state party:

  • It has to receive not less than six percent of the valid votes polled in any election to the State Legislative Assembly and also win at least two seats in that assembly.
  • The other condition is that it must secure not less than six percent of valid votes polled in any Lok Sabha general election from a particular state and win at least one seat in the Lok Sabha.
  • Another way is winning three percent of total seats or any fraction allotted to that state.
  • Alternatively, under more relaxed rules, an organisation could qualify for recognition as a state party if its share among all states’ popular vote exceeds or equals eight percent.

State Party in Three or More States:

1. All India Trinamool Congress

  • Political Parties Stand: Centre to centre-left
  • Beliefs: BangaBhumi, Progressiveness, Welfare state, Worldly outlook, Populism
  • Formed: 1998
  • Headed by: Mamata Banerjee
  • Places active in: Meghalaya, Tripura and West Bengal governments; 23 seats in Lok Sabha; 13 seats in Rajya Sabha 
  • Logo: Two Grass Flowers 
  • Interpretation: It represents modesty as well as people’s rights at local level plus commitment towards general welfare.

2. Communist Party of India

  • Political Stand: Leftism
  • Ideology: Communist, Marxist-Leninist, Anti-capitalist, Socialist, Secular
  • Established: 1925
  • Chairperson: D. Raja
  • Strength: Kerala, Manipur and Tamil Nadu governments; two Rajya Sabha MPs; state assembly members in various states.
  • Logo: Sickle with Star in background
  • Interpretation: The symbol signifies the party’s commitment towards peasant labour rights, socialism as well as the dream of a better tomorrow based on Marxist thought.

3. Janata Dal (Secular)

  • Political Affiliation: Leftist
  • Political Ideology: Secularism
  • Year of Establishment: 1999
  • Headed by: H. D. Deve Gowda
  • Influence: It has presence in Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala governments; 1 Lok Sabha seat, 1 Rajya Sabha seat.
  • Party Symbol: A farmer ploughing a field with two oxen.
  • Interpretation: This represents the party’s emphasis on farming, rural empowerment and grassroots representation in Karnataka. 

4. Janata Dal (United)

  • Political identity: Centre-left
  • Ideology: Socialism, Secularism, Integral Humanism
  • Established: 2003
  • Leader: Nitish Kumar
  • Presence: Holds office in Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar and Manipur; has one Lok Sabha seat, five Rajya Sabha seats and is a part of the state assemblies.
  • Symbol: An Arrow
  • Explanation: Progress, direction. Commitment of the party to move ahead with clear vision for development. 

State Party in Two States:

1. All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

  • Ideology: Populism, socialism, secularism, progressivism, social equality, Tamil nationalism
  • Year of foundation: 1972
  • Headed by: Edappadi K. Palaniswami
  • Places of existence: Puducherry and Tamil Nadu governments; 3 Rajya Sabha seats and a considerable number in state assemblies.
  • Symbolic representation: Two Leaves
  • Interpretation: Represents the togetherness of Dravidian political parties

2. Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

  • Political Position: Middle-left to Left-wing
  • Ideology: Democratic socialism, Self-Respect feminism, Marxism, Social justice, Federalism
  • Date established: 1949
  • Headquarters: Chennai, India
  • Leader Title: General Secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist Leninist) Liberation
  • Leader Name: M. K. Stalin
  • Seats in Rajya Sabha: 10
  • Presence/Representation in government: Puducherry and Tamil Nadu Representative Governments; Rajya Sabha; State Legislative Assembly.

3. Naga People’s Front

  • Political Position: Regionalism
  • Ideology: Regionalism
  • Founded: In the year 2002
  • Leader: Kuzholuzo Nienu
  • Presence: Representation in Manipur and Nagaland governments; 1 Lok Sabha seat, 1 Rajya Sabha seat, representation in state assemblies.
  • Symbol: A Cock
  • Meaning: It signifies bravery, perseverance, and the party’s dedication to protect the rights of Naga people. 

4. Nationalist Congress Party

  • Political Position: Centre
  • Ideology: Indian nationalism, Secularism
  • Founded: 1999
  • Leader: Ajit Pawar
  • Presence: Maharashtra and Nagaland governments; 1 Lok Sabha seat, 1 Rajya Sabha seat, and representation in state assemblies.
  • Symbol: A Clock
  • Meaning: It signifies progress, efficiency as well as the party’s commitment to timely and efficient governance.

5. Nationalist Congress Party (Sharadchandra Pawar)

  • Political Stand: Middle
  • Beliefs: Indian patriotism, Secularism
  • Established: 2024
  • Headed by: Sharad Pawar
  • Area of Operation: Maharashtra and Nagaland administrations; four Lok Sabha seats, two Rajya Sabha seats as well as state legislatures representation.
  • Symbolized by: Analogue Clock
  • Interpretation: This denotes the importance of punctuality in governance, development and competent leadership. 

6. Rashtriya Janata Dal

  • Political Position: Center-left to left-wing
  • Ideology: Socialism
  • Founded: In 1997
  • Leader: Lalu Prasad Yadav, Tejashwi Yadav
  • Presence: Representation in Bihar and Jharkhand governments; 6 Rajya Sabha seats, and significant representation in state assemblies.
  • Symbol: A Lantern
  • Meaning: Stands for enlightenment, guidance, and the party’s dedication to lighting up the ways of development. 

7. Telugu Desam Party

  • Political Position: Center-Right
  • Ideology: Populism, Liberalism (Economic)
  • Year Established: 1982
  • Head: N. Chandrababu Naidu
  • Presence: 3 Lok Sabha seats; 1 Rajya Sabha seat; Andhra Pradesh and Telangana governments’ representation in state assemblies.
  • Symbol: Bicycle
  • Interpretation: It symbolizes mobility, advancement, as well as the party’s dedication to building infrastructures for empowering masses.

8. YSR Congress Party


  • Political Position: Center-left
  • Ideology: Populism, Regionalism
  • Founded: 2011
  • Leader: Y. S. Jagan Mohan Reddy
  • Presence: They have representation in the Andhra Pradesh and Telangana governments; 22 seats in the Lok Sabha, 9 Rajya Sabha seats, and considerable representation in various state assemblies.
  • Symbol: Ceiling fan
  • Meaning: The ceiling fan represents comfort, progress, and commitment to understanding people’s requirements and dreams.

These states represent different areas of interest and have a big role in their states’ politics, making India a diverse political country.

State Party in Only One State

1. All India Forward Bloc

  • State: West Bengal
  • Political Position: Leftist
  • Ideology: Left nationalism, Socialism, Anti-imperialism, Marxism
  • Established: 1939
  • Leader: Debabrata Biswas
  • Presence: None in Lok Sabha; some representation within state assembly
  • Symbol: Kite
  • Significance: The kite represents freedom and hope. It stands also for the party’s dedication to the cause of socialism and its pledge to champion rights of deprived sections.

2. All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen

  • State: Telangana
  • Political leanings: Right-wing
  • Ideology: Mixed nationality, Minority rights, Dalit rights, Constitutionalism
  • Year of establishment: 1927
  • Headquartered by: Asaduddin Owaisi
  • Number of Lok Sabha seats: Two
  • Number of seats in the state assembly: Ten seats
  • Symbolised by a kite 
  • Meaning: The emblem signifies independence, self-assertion and the Muslim community’s welfare-oriented approach to politics.

3. All India N.R. Congress

  • Name: Puducherry
  • Orientation: Middle
  • Beliefs: Populism, Social democracy
  • Time of establishment: 2011
  • Head: N. Rangaswamy
  • Number of seats in the Indian Parliament: 1 Lok Sabha seat, representation in state assembly.
  • Logo: Water Jug (informally)

4. All India United Democratic Front

  • State: Assam
  • Established: 2005
  • Head: Badruddin Ajmal
  • Presence: 1 representative in the lower house of parliament, 15 seats in state legislative assembly
  • Symbol: Padlock and key
  • Importance: Symbolizes safety and safeguarding minority rights.

5. All Jharkhand Students Union

  • State: Jharkhand
  • Year of Establishment: 1986
  • Chief Minister: Sudesh Mahto
  • Lok Sabha Seats: 1
  • Vidhan Sabha Seats: 2
  • Party Symbol: Banana 
  • Significance : It stands for fertility and growth

6. Apna Dal (Sonelal)

  • State: UP
  • Political Position: Right-Center
  • Ideology: Kurmi Interest
  • Established: 2016
  • Leader: Anupriya Patel
  • Presence: 2 Seats in Lok Sabha, 12 seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Ticker symbol
  • Significance : Symbolizes dynamism and progress.

7. Asom Gana Parishad

  • State: Assam
  • Political Position: Centre-right
  • Ideology: Regionalism, Anti-Bengali sentiment
  • Founded: 1985
  • Leader: Atul Bora
  • Presence: 1 Lok Sabha seat, 9 seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Elephant
  • Significance: Represents strength and regional pride.

9. Bharat Rashtra Samithi

  • State: Telangana
  • Political Position: Centre to centre-right
  • Ideology: Regionalism, Populism, Conservatism, Separatism
  • Founded: 2001
  • Symbol: Car
  • Significance: Represents speed and modernity.
  • Leader: K. Chandrashekar Rao
  • Presence: 9 Lok Sabha seats, 39 seats in state assembly

10. Biju Janata Dal

  • State: Odisha
  • Political Position: Centre-Left
  • Ideology: Regionalism, Populism, Secularism, Liberalism, Economic nationalism
  • Founded: 1997
  • Leader: Naveen Patnaik
  • Presence: 12 Lok Sabha seats, 111 seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Conch shell
  • Significance: Stands for victory and resilience.

11. Bodoland People’s Front

  • State: Assam
  • Ideology: Secularism, Democratic socialism
  • Founded: 2005
  • Leader: Hagrama Mohilary
  • Presence: One Lok Sabha seat, three seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Nangol (a traditional plough)
  • Significance: Represents agriculture and cultural heritage.

12. Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation

  • Region: Bihar
  • Political Position: Far left
  • Ideology: Communism, Marxism–Leninism, Maoism
  • Established: 1974
  • Headed by: Dipankar Bhattacharya
  • Present in: State Assembly (13 seats)
  • Symbolised by: Red Star
  • Meaning: The red star shows that the party stays true to Marxist-Leninist beliefs and represents socialism, revolution and anti-imperialism. 

13. Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam

  • State: Tamil Nadu
  • Political Position: Middle to center-left
  • Ideology: Welfare state, Populism, Secularism, Social democracy
  • Established: 2005
  • Leader: Premallatha Vijayakant
  • Presence: Nil in Lok Sabha and state assembly constituencies.
  • Symbol: Train engine
  • Importance: Represents advancement and infrastructural growth in Tamil Nadu.

14. Goa Forward Party

  • State: Goa
  • Ideology: Regionalism
  • Founded: 2016
  • Leader: Vijai Sardesai
  • Presence: One seat in the state assembly
  • Symbol: Tractor
  • Significance: Symbolizes agricultural and rural development in Goa.

15. Hill State People’s Democratic Party

  • Name: Meghalaya
  • Established in: 1968
  • President: KP Panggang
  • Strength: 2 representatives in state legislative assembly
  • Logo: Lion
  • Importance: Indicates power and independence of the tribal population of Meghalaya.

16. Indian National Lok Dal

  • State: Haryana
  • Political Position: Centre
  • Ideology: Social liberalism, Regionalism
  • Year of establishment: 1996
  • Founder: Om Prakash Chautala
  • Presence: 1 seat in state assembly
  • Symbol: Spectacles
  • Significance: It stands for the vision of development and transparency in government that the party believes in.

17. Indian Union Muslim League

  • State: Kerala
  • Position: Central-right
  • Principles: Muslim Interests, Conservative Social views
  • Formed: 1948
  • Chief: Shihab Thangal Hyderali
  • Seats in Lok Sabha: 3 seats
  • Seats in the State Assembly: 15 seats
  • Symbol: Ladder
  • Meaning: Stands for growth and development as well as represents its commitment towards advancing Muslim community welfare.

18. Indigenous People’s Front of Tripura

  • State: Tripura
  • Political position: Centre-right
  • Ideology: Regionalism, Ethnic nationalism, Anti-immigration
  • Established in: 2009
  • Headed by: N.C. Debbarma
  • Presence in: 1 seat of state assembly
  • Symbolised by: Bow and Arrow
  • Meaning: Represents strength, persistence and preparedness to fight for the rights and interests of the indigenous people of Tripura.

19. Jammu & Kashmir National Conference

  • State: Jammu and Kashmir
  • Formation: 1932
  • Headed by: Farooq Abdullah
  • Representation in the Lok Sabha: Three seats
  • Electorate symbol: Plough
  • Significance: Stands for agricultural wealth as well as the party’s dedication towards betterment and growth of the area.

20. Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party

  • Place: Jammu and Kashmir
  • Year: 1982
  • Headed By: Bhim Singh
  • Existence: No positions in Lok Sabha or state assembly
  • Emblem: Bicycle
  • Meaning: Stands for development, motion and grass root level connectivity that demonstrates the social welfare and empowerment agenda of the party.

21. Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party

  • Designation: Jammu and Kashmir
  • Founded: 1999
  • Leader: Mehbooba Mufti
  • Existence: Zero parliamentary or legislative council seats
  • Mark of identification: Inkpot with pen
  • Importance: It represents knowledge, awareness and potentiality of thoughts; thereby embodying the party’s faith in democratic norms, dialogue process and progressive administration.

22. Janta Congress Chhattisgarh

  • State: Chhattisgarh
  • Political Position: Leftist
  • Ideology: Fairness, Feminist movement, Direct democracy, Agriculture
  • Founded: Year 2016
  • Leader: Renu Jogi
  • Presence: Two seats in the state assembly.
  • Symbol: Comb
  • Significance: It represents togetherness and power of many people as a single unit towards common good, which is based on social justice, agrarianism and empowerment of the masses.

23. Jannayak Janta Party

  • State: Haryana
  • Political Position: Democracy socialism
  • Founded: Two thousand eighteen
  • Leader: Dushyant Chautala
  • Presence: 10 seats in state assembly
  • Symbol : Chappal 
  • Significance : Demonstrates the organisation’s dedication to the people and their daily fights, thus indicative of democratic socialisation plus fairness.

24. Jharkhand Mukti Morcha

  • State: Jharkhand
  • Formed in: the year 1972
  • Leaders: Shibu Soren and Hemant Soren
  • Presence: One seat in the state assembly and one in Lok Sabha
  • Symbol: Bow and Arrow
  • Importance: The bow and arrow represents the fight for tribal rights and autonomy, symbolising the party’s roots in Jharkhand. 

25. Kerala Congress (M)

  • State: Kerala
  • Ideology: Welfare, Democratic socialism
  • Founded: 1979
  • Leader: Jose K. Mani
  • Presence: One seat in the Lok Sabha, five seats in the state assembly
  • Symbol: Two leaves
  • Significance: This reflects their focus on representing the people of Kerala especially farmers. 

26. Lok Janshakti Party (Ram Vilas)

  • State: Nagaland
  • Established: 2021
  • Head: Chirag Paswan
  • Seats: 1 Lok Sabha, 1 assembly seat
  • Symbol: Mansion
  • Significance: It represents that the party is committed to giving homes and security to underprivileged people. 

27. Maharashtra Navnirman Sena

  • State: Maharashtra
  • Political Position: Very right
  • Ideology: Hindutva, Right-wing populism, Regionalism, Ultranationalism
  • Founded: 2006
  • Leader: Raj Thackeray
  • Presence: One Lok Sabha seat
  • Symbol: Railway Engine
  • Meaning: The emblem represents the party’s emphasis on infrastructure development and modernisation, especially in transport. 

28. Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party

  • Goa
  • Position: Center
  • Ideology: Populism, regionalism
  • Established: 1963
  • Leader: Deepak Dhavalikar
  • Presence: State assembly 1 seat
  • Symbol: Lion
  • Meaning: It stands for power, bravery and pride, showing that the party is determined in defending and advancing Maharashtra and Goa people’s benefits.

29. Mizo National Front

  • State: Mizoram
  • Established: 1961
  • Leader: Zoramthanga
  • Presence: 1 Lok Sabha seat, 10 seats in the state assembly
  • Symbol: Star
  • Significance: It symbolises hope, dreams, and enlightenment for the people of Mizoram. This mirrors their vision and mission.

30. Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party

  • State: Nagaland
  • Political Position: Right
  • Ideology: Regionalism
  • Founded: 2017
  • Leader: Neiphiu Rio
  • Presence: 1 Lok Sabha seat, 25 seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Rooster
  • Significance: The bird represents watchfulness, bravery and aggressiveness that shows the party’s determination to protect Naga people’s welfare and rights. 

31. People’s Party of Arunachal

  • State: Arunachal Pradesh
  • Name: Regionalism
  • Birth: 1977
  • Head: Kamen Ringu
  • No seat in Lok Sabha or state assembly
  • Symbol: Snow Lion
  • Meaning: It is a sign of power, bravery and strong willpower that means that the party is dedicated to the good life for all people in Arunachal Pradesh.

32. Rashtriya Loktantrik Party

  • State: Rajasthan
  • Establishment: 2018
  • Head: Hanuman Beniwal
  • Constituency: 1 in Lok Sabha, 3 in state assembly
  • Symbol: Electric fan hanging from a roof
  • Importance: It represents the desire of common man to attain authority and draws attention towards their commitment to electoral rights and good governance.

33. Revolutionary Goans Party

  • State Name: Goa
  • Established: 2022
  • Leader: Viresh Borkar
  • No seats in Lok Sabha or legislative assembly.
  • Representative symbol: Soccer ball
  • Importance: Represents spirit and togetherness among Goans, indicating their desire for development and joint efforts.

34. Revolutionary Socialist Party

  • Kerala is a state in India.
  • Position: Farthest Left
  • Ideology: Communism, Marxism-Leninism, Revolutionary Socialism
  • Formed: 1940
  • Leader: Manoj Bhattacharya
  • Seats in the Lok Sabha: 1
  • Symbol: Shovel and stoker
  • Importance: Represents labor and industrial work.

35. Samajwadi Party

  • State Name: Uttar Pradesh
  • Political Position: Left-wing
  • Ideology: Social democracy, Democratic socialism, Left-wing populism
  • Year of Foundation: 1992
  • Leader: Akhilesh Yadav
  • Presence: Three Lok Sabha seats, One hundred twelve seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Bicycle
  • Significance: Symbolises progress, mobility and commitment towards social upliftment and empowerment through affordable transport.

36. Shiromani Akali Dal

  • State: Punjab
  • Political Position: Centre-right
  • Ideology: Punjabi identity, Conservatism, Federalism
  • Founded: 1920
  • Leader: Sukhbir Singh Badal
  • Presence: Two Lok Sabha seats, three seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Balance Scale ⚖️ 
  • Importance: Symbolizes justice and fairness which are the party’s main goals along with equality of rights before law and Sikh values in governance.

37. Sikkim Democratic Front

  • State Name: Sikkim
  • Political Position: Left-wing to centre-left
  • Ideology: Democratic socialism
  • Year of establishment: 1993
  • Leader: Pawan Kumar Chamling
  • Representation: One seat in Lok Sabha, one seat in the state assembly
  • Symbol: An umbrella 
  • Meaning: It signifies security and defense which is why it represents a party that has pledged itself towards protecting individuals’ rights as well as promoting social welfare.

38. Sikkim Krantikari Morcha

  • State: Sikkim
  • Political Position: Democratic socialism
  • Founded: 2013
  • Leader: Prem Singh Tamang
  • Presence: 1 Lok Sabha seat, 19 seats in state assembly
  • Symbol: Bicycle
  • Significance: Progress, mobility, and empowerment; these concepts signify the intention of the party to create a better life for all people by means of growth and change.

39. Shiv Sena

  • State: Maharashtra
  • Political Position: Right Wing to Far-Right
  • Ideology: Hindutva, Nationalism, Marathi Regionalism, Social Conservatism, Ultranationalism, Economic Nationalism, Right Populism
  • Founded: 1966
  • Leader: Eknath Shinde
  • Presence: Thirteen Lok Sabha seats and forty in the state assembly.
  • Symbol: Bow and arrow
  • Significance: It stands for Hindu warrior tradition as well as cultural pride of Maharashtra reflecting their belief system built around hindutva or regionalistic feelings towards nationalism.

40. Shiv Sena (Uddhav Balasaheb Thackeray)

  • State: Maharashtra
  • Political Position: Centre-right to right-wing
  • Ideology: Hindutva-Secularism, Patriotism, Marathi Nationalism, Indian Nationalism
  • Founded: 2022 A.D.
  • Leader: Uddhav Thackeray
  • Presence: Six Seats in Lok Sabha; Seventeen seats in Vidhan Sabha
  • Symbol: A flaming torch
  • Significance: Enlightenment and struggle

41. Tipra Motha Party

  • Place: Tripura 
  • Ideology: Tripuri nationalism, Greater Tipraland
  • Established: 2019
  • Head: Pradyot Bikram Manikya Deb Barma 
  • Existence: No presence in Lok Sabha or state assembly
  • Sign: Coconut 
  • Meaning: It signifies the party’s link to local identity and culture which manifests as its support for Tripuri nationalism as well as desire for larger Tipraland..

42. United Democratic Party

  • State: Meghalaya
  • Founding Year: 1997
  • Beliefs: Regionalism, Populism
  • Chief-In-Command: Metbah Lyngdoh
  • Existence: Absence of Lok Sabha seats, Presence in 11 state assembly constituencies
  • Symbol: Handshake
  • Meaning: Epitomises the organization’s dedication to solidarity and collaboration amidst a wide variety of communities and concerns in the area; indicating its emphasis on regionalism and populism.

43. United People’s Party Liberal

  • State: Assam
  • Political Position: Centre
  • Ideology: Regionalism
  • Founded in: 2015
  • Leader: Urkhao Gwra Brahma 
  • Representatives in the Lok Sabha: None 
  • Seats in the State Assembly : 7
  • Symbol of the party : Tractor  
  • Representation : Enlightenment and Struggle 

44. Voice of the People Party

  • State: Meghalaya
  • Ideology: Regionalism, Federalism
  • Inception: 2021
  • Supervisor: Ardent Miller Basaiawmoit
  • Existence: None in the Lok Sabha or state assembly.

45. Zoram Nationalist Party

  • State: Mizoram
  • Political Position: Centre
  • Ideology: Regionalism
  • Founded: 1997
  • Leader: H. Lalrinmawia
  • Presence: No representation in Lok Sabha or state assembly
  • Symbol: Sun
  • Significance: Represents radiance and vitality, emphasizing the party’s focus on energetic and renewing politics for Mizoram.

46. Zoram People’s Movement

  • State: Mizoram
  • Ideology: Against Hindutva nationalism, secularism, conservative Christianity, Christian right
  • Founded: 2017
  • Leader: Lalduhoma
  • Presence: None in the lower house of parliament, twenty seven in the state legislative assembly
  • Symbol: Sun going up
  • Significance: It symbolizes new beginnings and a new era in regional governance, signifying the party’s stress on local self-government and sustainable development in Mizoram.

India’s states represent a complicated political landscape because the parties involved in them have different ideologies and regional interests.

Things To Keep In Mind

Visual representations of identity, values, and beliefs in a political party are known as party symbols. These play an important role during campaigns where they help communicate messages to voters who cannot read or are less politically conscious.

The Election Commission of India allots symbols for use by registered parties during elections. This is done to ensure fair play and avoid any mix-up among electorates.

Some parties may opt for symbols that resonate with their desired voter bases or serve to set them apart from rivals. The choice of a symbol is usually well thought out so as to achieve the highest possible number of wins in an election.

It is important to appreciate what these symbols mean in terms of our understanding about Indian politics that is often characterised by multi-party systems; also how different organisations go about reaching out to people and gaining their support.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the main ideologies of Indian political parties?

Indian political parties encompass a wide range of ideologies including socialism, regionalism, secularism, nationalism, and liberalism, each shaping their policies and objectives.

How do regional parties impact Indian politics?

Regional parties play a significant role in Indian politics by representing the interests of specific states or regions, often holding sway in state governments and influencing national coalition politics.

What is the significance of party symbols in Indian elections?

Party symbols serve as visual representations aiding illiterate voters to identify their preferred party on the ballot, fostering a connection with the electorate and facilitating democratic participation.

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